Intermolecular forces result in the property of cohesion, which is the attraction between molecules. This force holds molecules together and affects properties such as surface tension and viscosity.
A more detailed response to your inquiry
Intermolecular forces play a crucial role in determining the physical and chemical properties of substances. These forces are the attractive interactions that occur between molecules, which can be a result of various types of intermolecular bonds such as hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole interactions, and London dispersion forces.
One of the properties that arise from these attractive forces is cohesion, which refers to the intermolecular attraction that holds molecules together. Cohesion is responsible for several interesting phenomena, some of which are essential for the functioning of everyday objects and natural occurrences.
Surface tension is a fascinating property influenced by intermolecular forces. It is the “elastic-like” tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area and form droplets. The cohesive forces between liquid molecules at the surface create a “skin” or “film” on the liquid, giving rise to surface tension. This property finds its application in various fields, such as capillary action, where water rises in narrow tubes against the force of gravity.
Viscosity, another property influenced by intermolecular forces, describes a fluid’s resistance to flow. Intermolecular forces between the molecules of a liquid contribute to its viscosity, with stronger intermolecular forces resulting in higher viscosity. For instance, honey has a higher viscosity than water due to its stronger intermolecular forces.
To delve deeper into this topic, it is intriguing to analyze the intermolecular forces from a molecular perspective. For example, hydrogen bonding, a type of intermolecular force, is responsible for the high boiling points and melting points of substances like water and ammonia. A famous quote by Linus Pauling, a renowned chemist, emphasizes the significance of hydrogen bonding: “Nature is an interesting example of how small hydrogen bonding differences can lead to vast differences in the properties of substances.”
Moreover, it is noteworthy to mention a few captivating facts about intermolecular forces and their consequences:
- London dispersion forces, also known as van der Waals forces, are the weakest intermolecular forces but are present in all molecules.
- Intermolecular forces are crucial to determine the physical state of a substance, such as whether it exists as a solid, liquid, or gas at a given temperature.
- Intermolecular forces are responsible for the unique properties of water, including its high boiling point, density anomaly, and surface tension.
- Adhesive forces, which occur between different molecules, work in conjunction with cohesive forces to influence phenomena like capillary action and adhesion of substances to surfaces.
- Intermolecular forces also impact solubility, as similar types of molecules tend to dissolve in each other due to cohesive forces between their molecules.
Table: Comparison of different types of intermolecular forces
|Type of force||Description||Examples|
|Hydrogen bonding||Attraction between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom||Water, ammonia|
|Dipole-dipole||Attraction between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule||HCl, chloroform|
|London dispersion||Attraction between temporary fluctuations of electron distribution in nonpolar molecules||Noble gases, hydrocarbons|
In conclusion, intermolecular forces are fundamentally important in understanding the properties of substances. Cohesion, resulting from these attractive forces between molecules, influences phenomena like surface tension and viscosity. Exploring the molecular basis of intermolecular forces reveals their impact on various aspects of our daily lives, highlighting the intricacies of the microscopic world. As Albert Einstein aptly stated, “The more I learn, the more I realize how much I don’t know.”
There are also other opinions
In chemistry and physics, cohesion (from Latin cohaesiō ‘cohesion, unity’), also called cohesive attraction or cohesive force, is the action or property of like molecules sticking together, being mutually attractive.
Cohesion refers to the attraction of molecules for other molecules of the same kind, and water molecules have strong cohesive forces thanks to their ability to form hydrogen bonds with one another.
A visual response to the word “What is a property that results from the attractive forces between molecules?”
This video discusses how intermolecular forces can cause liquids to boil at different temperatures. The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the boiling point. Helium, for example, has very weak intermolecular forces and boils at just above absolute zero. Sodium chloride, on the other hand, has much stronger intermolecular forces and boils at a much higher temperature.